Archive for October, 2012

PPAP is the Quality System

Posted on: October 31st, 2012 by admin 1 Comment

By Wally Stegall and Jon M. Quigley

The Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) has developed the Production PART Approval Process (PPAP) standard as part of advanced product quality planning (APQP).

The PPAP documentation; is thought by many as just a collection of documents and sign-off to allow a supplier to start manufacturing. That is not the case. The PPAP documents provide a demonstration of diligence from the respective areas of product development.  These documents provide evidence that Engineering, Product Evaluation (test), Production and Quality have performed necessary actions to secure the product.  The specific documents included are:


  • Part submission warrant
  • Design records and drawings
  • Engineering change documents
  • Design Failure Mode Effects Analysis (DFMEA)
  • Process flow diagram
  • Process Failure Mode Effects Analysis (PMEA)
  • Dimensional results
  • Material/performance test results
  • Initial process study
  • Measurement system assessment (MSA) studies
  • Qualified laboratory documentation
  • Prelaunch control plan
  • Appearance approval report
  • Process control plan
  • Bulk material checklist
  • Product sample
  • Checking aids (Gauge R&R)
  • Master sample
  • Customer specific requirements

The PPAP captures in its elements the evolution and change during the life of the product. PPAP has to be a living part of the quality systems as time and issues pass over the life of a product. Over time everything that affects a product changes at a supplier including a company’s procedures, manufacturing technology, product requirements and organizational structure/ people change. The challenges of the product itself influence the products life and manufacturing.

 PPAP is the tool by which a supplier insures requirements are being meet at the start of production. Most people understand that. PPAP is also the means by which the supplier insures requirements are being meet throughout the product life. Suppliers must integrate the elements of the PPAP into the quality systems and ensure that the PPAP and it elements are updated throughout the life of the product. The PPAP needs to be as required a living document between the supplier and the OEM.

I sometimes wonder if organization’s fear using PPAP as a living tooling for a product or is it simple an oversight because other “internal” documentation drives metrics. Whatever the reason the PPAP is sometimes dissociated from the product; it a problem that does not need to happen. The tool is there for the supplier and the OEM to provide evidence of diligence and communication.

Design for Manufacturing

Posted on: October 3rd, 2012 by admin 1 Comment

by Jon M Quigley

Design for manufacturing provides us with the ability to critique the design as it applies or impacts the manufacturing line. Have you ever wondered why the phrase “hits production” exists? It is because insufficient attention to the integration of the design and the manufacturing often result in trauma at the manufacturing site. Design for Manufacturing is one tool for improving this situation.

Our objective is to design the product in such a way that we minimize the impact upon manufacturing. We essentially want the design to play to the existing manufacturing strengths and capabilities. We know that the design dictates to a large degree the cost to manufacture. Some estimates indicate that 70% of the manufacturing costs originate in design decisions, and only 20% originating in production or manufacturing decisions. This makes this area rife for value optimization.

Like the design for assembly, we integrate the design and development work with the manufacturing endeavors of the project. In this case, our focus is not the assembly process, but the entire manufacturing aspects of the product. To have the greatest impact, we perform this work while the product is under development (thus the integrated).

While the best situation is this exchange between design and manufacturing, value can be obtained even after the product design has been completed and the manufacturing line has been running for some period. However we sacrifice the ability to modify the design while the design is evolving. This means we may have to rework the original design or accept the implications of the design on the manufacturing process, minimizing the area of consideration for value improvement.

For more information please contact Jon M Quigley at (336) 484-1528.

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