Gemba Walk

Go to the place where the work is performed, that is the Gemba walk.  This does not apply just to manufacturing, but also line managers and their respective departments as well as to project management. You want to know what is going on, what could be better, go unto the work space and watch and talk with the people doing the work.

Where the work is performed, depends upon the work.  For example, if you are the manager of a product testing department, the place where the work is performed is likely the lab,  Go where the Hardware In the Loop (HIL) rigs and see how things are going, go to the test rooms where the environmental (hot and cold) and other stimuli (vibration) are administered to the product.  Learn how this work is actually being done. Ask questions about how the work is going.  What sort of things are difficult and why? What can we do to make the … Continue reading

Common Cause and Special Cause Variation

Variation!

Though sometimes we may refuse to recognize it, the world is a full of variation, even in the things we think or believe are constant. For example, my wife has been known to say, “you always do…” or “you never do…”, to which I retort, I am human and I am not that repeatable.  I say that, but it is not just humans that are not so repeatable.  Everything has variation, and understanding this variation, is important for product development, project management, manufacturing, product testing and so much more.  To master this work, we need to understand this variation as completely as possible.

Common and Special Cause Variation

Shewart is credited for developing the concepts of special and common cause [1].  Special cause variation, are variations that are outside of the expected (intermittent) range of possibilities. Common cause variation, are the variation expected, we know about these, these are predictable, provided we have put some effort into learning about … Continue reading

Instead of No Estimates

Instead of  No Estimates

Instead of no estimates, we should consider adjusting our approach to estimates that eliminate the abuse, and still allows for the answers to the business questions, “does this project improve our bottom line” allowing the business to determine if the company really wants to undertake the project, and if so, do we have the talent and resources to undertake this project.  Answering these two questions initiates the next steps to actually create a project and being planning and doing the work.

Besides the techniques below, we can estimate from top down, estimation comes from managers and executives, or bottom up, that is those doing the work or closest to the work, provide the estimates. There are draw backs and benefits to each of these approaches.

Estimating Techniques

There are many techniques for estimating.  Experience suggests organizations may not use much more than the least helpful, expert judgement.

Analogous Parametric PERT Simulation (Monte Carlo Analysis) Expert Judgement Analogous

Instead … Continue reading

Abuses from Estimating

I would like to start off with has anybody seen an appropriate study of estimating when it comes to doing the work? Not a study that already knows the conclusion they want, but an actual scientific study.  The thoughts below are not based upon anything like that but, having seen many estimating boondoggles. I have also read portions of the works of Barry W. Boehm, and Constructive Cost Model which is a tool for estimating, many years ago.

I find myself in many discussions with the #noestimates crowd. I am not a no estimating person.  The latest “exchange” was around the abuses that estimating brings. This I am in full agreement with them. I just do not go as far as they would to say, no estimates because people are abusive in this regard. My retort, people abuse antibiotics, but we do not ban these.  It is interesting to note that most if not all the people I “hear” … Continue reading

Risk Management Through the Project Class

Risk Management Through the Project

In modern life, risk management is a fundamental discipline for success. This does not just apply to work life, or project management but also personal life. Today we are going to discuss the approaches and impacts on the project when there is insufficient attention to the risks to which the project will be subjected.  The risks to which our work will be subjected depends upon the what we are doing and how we go about doing it, that is, the strategies and tactics we employ to reach the objective.

Consider an automotive project to develop a new product. This will require understanding the need, creating the design, develop the manufacturing line and verify and validate the product and the manufacturing line, and ultimately launch the product at the production rate. We demonstrate in our SAE book, an example of how these phases work and how these phases share information.

 

Risk Management Class

We … Continue reading

Poke Yoke

Poke Yoke

Jon M Quigley

There are a set of tools and techniques that come with developing products for the automotive industry and are part of the Advanced Product Quality Planning for the product.  We have written about APQP or some years and have decades of experience in this approach to product development.  In general, the phases of the project are described as:

Voice of Customer Product Development Process Development Product Validation Process Validation Launch Feedback

 

 

We have a discussion board that supports questions you may have regarding APQP.  Today, we will ruminate on the technique known as Poke Yoke, which I heard an Supplier Quality Assurance professional refer to as “goof proofing”.  While largely benefiting manufacturing, these considerations and implementation is achieved in the development work, otherwise we end up doing considerable rework of the developed product to optimize manufacturing or field service work. Rather, we will use design for manufacturing (DFM) or design for manufacturing … Continue reading

Independent Test and Verification

We are composing a glossary of test terms and we take one from that work today and discuss here.

A development organization can be structured in many ways. The development and testing can be essentially one department under one management structure, or these two areas, development and test can be separated each with a respective hierarchy.  Like most things, there are benefits and drawbacks for each approach.  The trick is to map the biggest benefit to your organization, or reduce the negative effects on your organization.  All of this means the selection for organizational structure is likely not best left to an arbitrary decision.

Communication

I am sure we see the obvious benefit of having the test personnel integrated with the development staff.  Those who have been in development for awhile no doubt understand the communications challenges that can come with separating groups when interaction between those groups is paramount for project success.  So, the benefit of these two disciplines … Continue reading

Measurement effects and analysis on personnel and organizations

by: Shawn P. Quigley

Whereas we have discussed some of the possible flaws in measurements we can all still agree that they are needed to provide both improvement in processes and the organization. However, other aspects of obtaining data for the production of quantifiable information: trend analysis and process evaluation, is the human factor both workers and management. As in so many of our conversations we look at the affect it has on the people who are essentially being evaluated by the information gathered for these measures. An issue we will discuss later in this post, but first let us look at the management aspect of this equation.

As a quality analysis person data may seem to be clear most of the time, but as a management person how do you gauge the data which is being received? Do you understand its’ meaning? Do you look at the outliers to forecast or do you think they are just noise to … Continue reading

Analysis of Measurements

by: Shawn P. Quigley & Jon M Quigley

Measurements and Bias

Solely by the process of observing something we can alter the thing which is being observed. This is a known as the observer-expectancy effect.  This effect is born out of conscience and subconscious biases of the observer.  In the case of observing people, we have noted in earlier blog posts that the act of observation, taking an interest, may alter the outcome or performance as well (consider The Hawthorne study).  To make an effective measurement we must work to account for these impacts.  We also must know the goal we have set for collecting the information, that is the measurement is context based.  Having a specific goal, informs the type of data and methods of data collection.  Both of these are rife with opportunity for bias to creep into the measurements,  and delude our team.  This bias can creep in not only, what we identify … Continue reading

The Un-repeatable Fault

Testing Complex and Embedded Systems What set of conditions could cause this event to occur?

When we have elicited all we can from the customer about fault information, it is time to proceed further in our analysis. This next step requires investigation of the design to understand how the symptom of failure described could happen by breaking down the hardware and software and the interactions within them to understand the improper behavior of the features to the customer. If the investigator is in the automotive, pharmacy, or food industries, they can resort to an immediate perusal of the Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) and the Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA). If our investigator is lucky, they may find pointers to the cause of the issue in these documents.

To be successful, we need to perform a rigorous and systematic critique of the design—with enough follow up to ensure that any correctable issues have been resolved. Usually, … Continue reading

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